### Understanding Roman Numeral Translation

Roman numerals are a numeric system that originated in ancient Rome, used for performing arithmetic operations and representing numbers. In this system, numbers are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. For modern usage, the letters I, V, X, L, C, D, and M are commonly employed.

### Basic Roman Numerals

Each of these letters corresponds to a specific value:

- I: 1
- V: 5
- X: 10
- L: 50
- C: 100
- D: 500
- M: 1000

### Forming Numbers

Roman numerals are generally written from largest to smallest, and the values are added together. However, if a smaller numeral appears before a larger one, it is subtracted.

#### Examples:

**II**: $1 + 1 = 2$
**IV**: $5 - 1 = 4$
**VI**: $5 + 1 = 6$
**IX**: $10 - 1 = 9$
**XL**: $50 - 10 = 40$
**XC**: $100 - 10 = 90$
**CM**: $1000 - 100 = 900$

### Complex Numbers

Larger numbers are formed by combining these principles. For example:

$100 + 50 + 5 + 1 + 1 = 157$
$1000 + (1000 - 100) + (100 - 10) + (5 - 1) = 1994$
### Special Cases

**Repeat** a numeral up to three times to add the values. For example:
**Do not repeat** V, L, or D, as these values are never repeated in succession.

Understanding these *basic rules* allows you to perform **roman numeral translation** efficiently, converting between Roman numerals and Arabic numbers seamlessly.