Explanation
The Collision and Deformation
When two tectonic plates collide, significant geological forces come into play. This process primarily involves:
 Compression
 Tension
 Shearing
However, if the plates do not break during this collision, they undergo deformation. This deformation can result in various geological formations and phenomena.
Types of Deformation

Elastic Deformation
 The plates may experience temporary deformation where they return to their original shape after the stress is released.

Plastic Deformation
 This occurs when the plates permanently change shape. The material within the plates flows in a plastic manner under stress.
The relationship between stress (σ) and strain (ε) can be depicted as:
$\sigma = E \cdot \varepsilon$where $E$ is the modulus of elasticity, representing the stiffness of the material.
Geological Consequences
Mountain Formation
The collision results in the upwards thrust of the Earth’s crust, leading to mountain ranges. A classic example of this phenomenon is the Himalayas.
$F_{\text{mountain}} = \frac{1}{2} \rho g h^2$Here, $F_{\text{mountain}}$ is the force contributing to mountain formation, $\rho$ is the density of the material, $g$ is gravity, and $h$ is the height of the uplift.
Earthquakes
The buildup of tensional and compressional stress at the plate boundaries can lead to the release of energy in the form of earthquakes. The formula for strain energy $U$ released during an earthquake can be given by:
$U = \frac{1}{2} \sigma \varepsilon V$where $V$ is the volume of the deformed region.
Conclusion
Overall, the collision of tectonic plates that results in deformation without breaking leads to significant geological activity. The most noteworthy outcomes include the creation of mountain ranges and seismic events. Understanding these processes helps in predicting and mitigating natural disasters, which is crucial for human safety and planning.