## Explanation

### Series Circuit

In a series circuit, all components are connected end-to-end in a single path for the current to flow.

### Impact of One Resistor (Bulb) Turning Off

When one resistor or light bulb in a **series circuit** is turned off, the entire circuit is **broken**. This means:

**All other light bulbs will go out**.- The current flow is interrupted, so no electricity reaches the remaining bulbs.

### Parallel Circuit

In a parallel circuit, components are connected across multiple paths, so the current has more than one route to take.

### Impact of One Resistor (Bulb) Turning Off

When one resistor or light bulb in a **parallel circuit** is turned off:

- The other bulbs
**remain lit**. - The current can still flow through the other paths.

### Brightness of Remaining Bulbs

In parallel circuits, when one bulb goes out, the brightness of the remaining bulbs **stays the same** because each branch in a parallel circuit operates independently.

### Important Equations

For a series circuit with resistors $R_1, R_2, \ldots, R_n$:

$R_{\text{total}} = R_1 + R_2 + \cdots + R_n$For a parallel circuit with resistors $R_1, R_2, \ldots, R_n$:

$\frac{1}{R_{\text{total}}} = \frac{1}{R_1} + \frac{1}{R_2} + \cdots + \frac{1}{R_n}$These formulas illustrate how the total resistance differs between series and parallel circuits, affecting current flow and brightness of the bulbs accordingly.